Dr. Mary Jordan Finley

Dr. Mary Jordan Finley was born November 26, 1849, in Pennsylvania to William Augustus Finley and Amanda Jane Irwin/Erwin.  There is no record of her parents getting married.  The 1850 U.S. Census shows them living with Amanda’s mother, Mary Irwin, in Fannett, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, where 23-year-old Amanda J. is still listed with the surname Irwin.  Also listed in the household are various other Irwin’s including Amanda’s brother, Alexander J. Irwin, and the Finley’s, including William (28), Mary (2), and Augustus (0).  Amanda disappears after 1850 and, in the 1860 U.S. Census, Mary J. is still living with her grandmother.  William Finley had moved to Clay, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, and is living with the family of James Galaher.  William would go on to marry James’s 17-year-old daughter, Margaret, two years later, having four more children: Edward, John, Lewis, and Amanda. 

Dr. Mary Jordan Finley (1896)

It was Mary Jordan Finley’s uncle Alexander that would eventually bring her to Mansfield, Ohio.  Dr. Alexander J. Erwin, who was practicing medicine in Ft. Wayne, Indiana, had met a Mansfield girl name, Mary C. Johnson.  The two would be married in Mansfield on November 26, 1867, and return to Ft. Wayne.[1]  In 1870 by the “urgent solicitation of friends,” Dr. Erwin and his wife returned to Mansfield, where he soon set up a practice.[2]  On November 27, 1874, Mary C. Erwin died at the age of 35 of consumption.  Dr. Erwin and his wife had recently returned from Europe, where it was hoped her condition would improve, but it seemed to have little benefit.[3]  Dr. Erwin poured himself into his work after the death of his wife, becoming coroner.  In 1877 the first mentions of Mary Finley living in Mansfield are seen.  She is active in the Mansfield Lyceum, reading poems and lectures.  She is also listed in the 1877-78 city directory as living with her uncle at 124 West Market St. (Park Ave. West).  A short time later, Mary would return to Pennsylvania to attend the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1881.[4]

From the Valedictory address: To the twenty-ninth graduating class of the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania.
The Mansfield Herald, 29 June 1882, p1.

In 1881 reports circulated that Dr. Erwin intended to lease the Sherman House on the corner of Fourth and Diamond Streets with intentions to make it a hospital for the treatment of chronic diseases.  Dr. Mary Finley was going to join him and be in charge of the treatment of women’s diseases.[5]  Dr. Finley arrived in Mansfield around February of 1882[6] and began practicing out of the Sherman House, sometimes referred to as the “invalid hotel.”  In the summer of 1885, along with Dr. Rebecca S. Hunt, of Philadelphia, and Mrs. H. M. Weaver and Mrs. M. D. Harter of Mansfield, Dr. Finley traveled to Europe.  While there, Drs. Finley and Hunt studied medicine at the Imperial University of Vienna.[7]  Drs. Erwin and Finley stayed in the Sherman House until the end of 1886 and, in 1888, Dr. Finley bought property to the east of Dr. Craig’s home on Park Ave. West for $4,000 with intentions to build a new house that would “be an ornament to that part of the avenue.”[8]  Dr. Finley did erect a building that still stands today at 46 and 48 Park Avenue West.  The building has been recently renovated with the upstairs being made into apartments with two storefronts on the ground level. 

The Mansfield News, 11 July 1900, p. 8.

Dr. Finley worked out of her office at 48 Park Ave West until around 1900.  The 1901 city directory lists a dentist by the name of Dr. Benedict located in her former office.  Dr. Finley continued to keep her residence upstairs, but would split her time over the next few years between Mansfield and Cuernavaca, Mexico.  In 1907 Dr. Finley wrote home to her cousin, W. E. Orbison, about her participation in a reception for U. S. Secretary of State, Elihu Root.  Root, who was with his daughter and the American Ambassador, was welcomed by Finley on behalf of the American Residents of Cuernavaca.  Dr. Finley’s date for the evening was Major Porfirio Diaz, the only son of the then Mexican President.[9]  That same year, she wrote to her uncle Dr. A. J. Erwin about Aztec pyramids discovered nearby and how they resembled the pyramids in Egypt.[10]

Cuernavaca, Mexico (1897) image from DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University, (https://digitalcollections.smu.edu/digital/collection/mex/id/985/rec/21)

On March 4, 1912, Dr. Finley would write her last letter to the people of Mansfield detailing her experiences living in Mexico during the early days of the Mexican Revolution.  Finley described how troops would go into the smaller villages outside of Cuernavaca and burn them and take the inhabitants prisoner.  Most of the villagers were supporters of Emiliano Zapata, the main leader of the peasant revolution.  Though she was not a supporter of the revolution, the sight of men, women, and children being marched through the streets saddened her.  The men would be lined up against a wall and shot while the women and children were “turned loose in Cuernavaca without food or shelter.”  She closed her letter by saying “the greatest kindness the United States can do us is to keep their hand off and let the counter revolution go on as rapidly as possible.”[11]

Dr. Mary Jordan Finley died on December 17, 1912, in Philadelphia, PA.  In addition to the many great achievements in her life, she was also a member of many civic, literary, and social organizations and was an ardent supporter of the Mansfield Library Association, writing one of the earliest histories on library service in Mansfield.  Susan M. Sturges was able to see Dr. Finley while she was in the hospital in Philadelphia shortly before her death and, while speaking to her, remarked that the doctor said she “longed to come to Mansfield, [her] old home.”[12]  Dr. Finley is buried in Mansfield Cemetery.

Sources:

  1. Richland Shield and Banner (Mansfield, Ohio). 27 Nov 1867, p. 3.
  2. Mansfield Herald (Mansfield, Ohio). 15 Dec 1870, p. 3
  3. Richland Shield and Banner (Mansfield, Ohio). 05 Dec 1874, p. 3.
  4. Bodley, R. L., & Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania. (1881). Valedictory address: To the twenty-ninth graduating class of the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Grant, Faires & Rogers, Printers.
  5. Mansfield Herald (Mansfield, Ohio). 28 Jul 1881, p. 3.
  6. Ohio Liberal (Mansfield, Ohio). 15 Feb 1882, p. 3.
  7. Mansfield Herald (Mansfield, Ohio). 07 May 1885, p. 4,
  8. Daily Shield and Banner (Mansfield, Ohio). 01 Nov 1888, p. 4.
  9. News-Journal (Mansfield, Ohio), 25 Oct 1907, p. 8.
  10. News-Journal (Mansfield, Ohio), 04 Nov 1907, p. 6.
  11. News-Journal (Mansfield, Ohio), 11 Mar 1912, p. 3.
  12. News-Journal (Mansfield, Ohio), 07 Dec 1912, p. 9.

An Update on Dr. J Lillian McBride

In March of 2018, we posted a blog about the incredible life of one of Mansfield’s early female doctors, Dr. J Lillian McBride.  At that time, little was known of her early years and life after she left Mansfield.  Since then, more information has been uncovered and appears here in this update on the life of Dr. Julia Lillian McBride.

Click here to view this earlier post.

Lillian_Mcbride

Dr. J Lillian Mcbride in 1896 Richland County Atlas

According to Ohio death records, Dr. Julia Lillian McBride was born in Germantown, Montgomery County, Ohio[i] and her death certificate has her date of birth as September 12, 1864[ii].  Her parents, William W. Wheeler and Julia Wells Brown, were married in Butler County on December 10, 1863[iii] and in the 1870 U.S. Census, the family is recorded as living in Fairfield Township, Butler County, Ohio.  Julia, or Lily as she is referred to in the census, is the oldest of three children in 1870.  Siblings Robert (born abt. 1866) and James Fleming (born abt. 1868) are also recorded.  Their father, William, is recorded as a teacher for the district schools[iv].  By 1880, the family had grown and moved to Butler Township, Darke County, Ohio.  There are a total of 8 children recorded for William and Julia.  They had added Margaret (born abt. 1873), David Ira (born abt. 1875), Jessie (born abt. 1877) and Walter (born abt. 1878)[v].  William W. Wheeler died on November 12, 1915, in Darke County, Ohio[vi] and his wife Julia died on March 17, 1924, in West Carrolton City, Ohio.  Both are buried in Castine Cemetery in Darke County, Ohio[vii].

wheeler brown marriage

Marriage record for William W, Wheller and Julia W. Brown, 10 DEC 1863

It would have been sometime before 1885 when the young Julia met her future husband, Dr. Franklin Elmer McBride.  Their love would be short-lived however as Franklin died of typhus fever on July 6, 1890 while on a mission trip to China[viii].  Three sons were born from this union: Alfred (born Oct. 1886), Astley (born Nov. 1887), and Franklin who was born in September 1890 in China after his father’s death.  The 1900 U.S. Census shows them all living in Mansfield, Ohio[ix].  Alfred would become an iron molder at a foundry[x] and later a truck driver[xi].  He died on September 27, 1951, in Dayton, Ohio[xii].  Astley would become a civil engineer, but die young of tuberculosis on June 17, 1916, in Collingdale, Pa[xiii].  Franklin Jr. also died young.  He traveled west and met and married his wife, Nellie Berlin, in Jackson, Independence, Missouri[xiv].  The 1930 U.S. Census records them in Cleveland, Ohio with their three children[xv].  Franklin Jr. died August 1, 1933[xvi] and is buried in Castine Cemetery in Darke County, Ohio[xvii].

JLMAd

Advertisement in the 1908-09 Mansfield City Directory

With three young children, it is even more impressive that Julia Lillian McBride made her way to Philadelphia and received her diploma from the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, before returning to Mansfield to practice medicine.  Dr. J Lillian McBride would practice medicine in Mansfield until 1921 when a newspaper article related she was moving to West Carrolton, Montgomery County, Ohio[xviii]. She would have been alone in the city at this time and most likely looking to spend time with her family.  Dr. McBride would spend the next 30 years in the vicinity of Montgomery County, Ohio.  The 1929 Dayton, Ohio City Directory lists her as a physician[xix] and, in the 1930 U.S. Census, she is renting a home at 48 State Street, Phillipsburg, Clay Township, Montgomery County, Ohio and continues to work as a physician[xx].  By 1940, she is retired and a boarder at 925 Pearl Street, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, Ohio, living with Carrie Curtner[xxi].  Dr. McBride’s final residence was 601 Infirmary Rd., Dayton, Ohio.

1929 dayton directory

Dr. McBride in the 1929 Dayton, Ohio City Directory

Dr. Julia Lillian McBride outlived not only her husband but also her three children and died on the same day as her father, November 12, 1951, at Montgomery County Hospital after a long illness.  Dr. McBride was cremated and her ashes were scatted in Muncie, Indiana[xxii].

Sources:

[i] Ohio, County Death Records, 1840-2001, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:F6ZN-ZZD
[ii] Ohio Deaths, 1908-1953, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X6TP-Q5C
[iii] Ohio, county Marriages, 1789-2013, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XZDX-M94
[iv] United States Census, 1870, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M6KZ-33X
[v] United States Census, 1880, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8MQ-Q8L
[vi] FindAGrave.com, retrieved from https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/113249040/william-w_-wheeler
[vii] FindAGrave.com. retrieved from https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/101883681/julia-wells-wheeler
[viii] Dr. J Lillian Mcbride, retrieved from https://theshermanroom.wordpress.com/2018/03/10/dr-j-lillian-mcbride/
[ix] United States Census, 1900, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MM65-RYM
[x] United States Census, 1910, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:ML64-CZR
[xi] United States Census, 1930, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X4HN-HWV
[xii] FindAGrave.com, retrieved from https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/68821247/alfred-rush-mcbride
[xiii] Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1967.
[xiv] Ancestry.com. Missouri, Marriage Records, 1805-2002
[xv] United States Census, 1930, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X435-CWS
[xvi] Ohio Deaths, 1908-1953, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X6Q8-SGW
[xvii] FindAGrave.com, retrieved from https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/180326162/franklin-e_-mcbride
[xviii] Dr. J Lillian Mcbride, retrieved from https://theshermanroom.wordpress.com/2018/03/10/dr-j-lillian-mcbride/
[xix] Dayton, Ohio, City Directory, 1929
[xx] United States Census, 1930, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X4HZ-CM6
[xxi] United States Census, 1940, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:KW2P-148
[xxii] Ohio Deaths, 1908-1953, retrieved from https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X6TP-Q5C

The Remarkable Life and Tragic Death of Dr. R. Harvey Reed.

Robert Harvey Reed was born on October 8, 1851 in Dalton, Ohio, a village about 13 miles east of Wooster, Wayne County, Ohio.  According to Robert G. Patterson, at an early age Reed was taken into the home of his uncle, Robert H. Reed, who raised and educated him.  It was his uncle’s second wife, Eliza, who became a mother figure to him.  R. Harvey attended Union High School at Dalton.  Sometime between the age of 17 and 18 Reed began teaching school; he earned $20 a month.  Around this time, thanks to the money from teaching and other odd jobs, he started attending Mt. Union College in Alliance, Ohio.[1]

Library Document Station_3

Robert Harvey Reed, age 16 or 17, from Patterson’s Robert Harvey Reed.

In 1873, at the age of 22, Reed began studying medicine under Dr. Wormer of Alliance, Ohio.  Reed returned home to Dalton and continued to study medicine with Dr. David Y. Roebuck.  Against the wishes of his foster-father, Reed entered medical school at the University of Pennsylvania in 1874.  After his first class, Reed was selected by the faculty to be resident physician at Mission Hospital in Philadelphia and graduated with honors on March 10, 1876.

After graduation Dr. Reed briefly work as a surgeon for the Delaware Copper Mining Company at Lake Superior, Keweenaw County, Michigan.  While there he also was asked to botanize and report on the flora of Keweenaw Point Michigan, which appeared in the “Forestry Report” published by the U. S. government.   On June 20, 1876, Reed came home to marry Miss Melissa A. Stinson of Dalton, Ohio.  In 1877 Reed returned to Ohio, where the next twenty years of his work would take place.

reed_remove

The Daily Shield, 11 NOV 1880

Reed first began working in West Salem, Ohio with Dr. C. C. Stouffer, who was also a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania.  He worked there for 3 years before moving to Mansfield, Ohio in November of 1880.  Dr. Reed’s first ad appeared in The Mansfield Herald on December 30, 1880 and his office was located on N. Park St. for about two years, until he moved to West Third where he had his office next to his residence.

reed_ad

The Daily Shield, 30 DEC 1880

During his time in Mansfield, Dr. Reed was an active member in the Mansfield Lyceum and Reading Union.  It was here that many of his papers were read on sanitation and public health.  Reed would become a pioneer in this field with papers like “The Sanitary condition of Mansfield,” which suggested the establishment of a board of health in the city, and “Sewers and Sewerage,” which discussed the best sewage system adaptable to Mansfield.  It was also in Mansfield where Dr. Reed received his first public office when he was appointed physician to the Richland County Children’s Home on June 30, 1883. Dr. Reed was also involved in the creation of the Richland County Sanitary Association and the Mansfield Board of Health; he served as health officer from 1887 until he left the city in 1894.

Also while in Mansfield, Dr. Reed contracted an infection that remained with him for the rest of his life.  During an operation, Dr. Reed was pricked by a needle and despite several treatments and operations, including many for his life-long friend the famous surgeon Nicholas Senn of Chicago, the infection never cleared up.

Library Document Station_4

Dr. Reed about 1892, from Patterson’s Robert Harvey Reed.

Later Dr. Reed helped with the establishment of the Ohio Medical University in Columbus, Ohio.  “Chartered in 1890, Ohio Medical University opened in 1892 to teach the medical and collateral professions.  It originally offered schools of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy.  For a short time OMU had a school of midwifery.“  In 1892 Reed was appointed to the Chair in the Theory and Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery.  He traveled between Mansfield and Columbus for two years before moving to Columbus to teach surgery and serve as chief of the surgical staff of the Protestant Hospital. “In 1907 Ohio Medical University merged with its Columbus competitor–Starling Medical College.  In 1914 the Starling-Ohio Medical school accepted an offer to become the medical department of Ohio State University.“[2]

Ohio_Medical_University_and_Protestant_Hospital_(16991288785)

Ohio Medical University

In 1897 Dr. Reed accepted positions in Rock Springs, Wyoming where he worked for the next ten years.  On January 1, 1907 due to failing health, Dr. Reed resigned his position with the Union Pacific Railroad and moved further west to Los Angeles.  By the end of the month, Dr. Reed was dead from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head.  According to his obituary in a Rock Springs Miner from February 9, 1907: “at half past twelve o’clock Wednesday afternoon [January 30, 1907], Dr. Reed was left alone in his apartments for a short time. During this brief period he secured a revolver and placing it to his right temple, fired one fatal shot. The report of the shot attracted the attention of the hotel attaches who immediately entered the room, and found his body stretched on the floor, with life extinct. Near his right hand was lying the revolver with which the tragedy was committed.”[3]

Library Document Station_6

Dr. Reed about 1902, from Patterson’s Robert Harvey Reed.

According The Mansfield Daily Shield, The Los Angeles Times reported that “the man of mystery, who was never seen outside of his hotel room at the Lankersham Hotel, killed himself there yesterday, blowing out his brains with a big .44 caliber revolver.”  They continued to say that “having lost his position, his family and friends through drink, he lay in bed in his room, in charge of his valet, drinking in joyless, helpless, abandonment to the end.”  The night clerk on duty reported the grisly scene: “the body was half turned on one side, and the entire top of the skull was gone – smashed to pulp.  Each of the four walls of the room was splattered with blood and brains. A piece of the skull had been buried to the celling with such force that it broke the plaster and remained imbedded there.  The large revolver lay nestled in the hollow of one of the arms.”[4]

Exterior_view_of_the_Lankershim_Hotel_at_Seventh_Street_and_Broadway_Los_Angeles_ca1907

Lankersham Hotel abt. 1907, from the USC Digital Library

Though alcohol may have been the immediate cause of Dr. Reed’s suicide, others claim that his mental health had been deteriorating for years.  According The Daily Shield, Dr. Reed “had written a number of very queer letters to former Mansfield friends which clearly indicated that his mind was wrecked.”  In the same article it was reported that due to the infection Dr. Reed and contracted years ago, he had become addicted to cocaine.  It was due to these addictions and loss of mental faculties that his wife felt compelled to leave him about a year before his death.[5]

Diseases and addiction destroyed a brilliant mind; Dr. R Harvey Reed was at the top of his profession.  He was a pioneer in sanitary conditions in Ohio and during his time in Mansfield and made many great improvements to the city.  Dr. Reed led a remarkable life that should not be overshadowed by his grisly death.

Sources:

[1] Patterson, R. G., (1935). Robert Harvey Reed: A Sanitary Pioneer in Ohio. The Ohio Public Health Association.
[2] Ohio Medical University, America’s Lost colleges, Retrieved from http://www.lostcolleges.com/ohio-medical-university
[3] Rock Springs Miner, February 02, 1907
[4] The Mansfield Dailey Shield, February 07, 1907.
[5] The Mansfield Dailey Shield, February 02, 1907.

Dr. J. Lillian McBride

The medical profession has mainly been dominated by men for most of its history, but Mansfield had at least two female physicians prior to 1900.  Dr. Julia Lillian McBride and Dr. Mary J. Finley were pioneers in their field and broke into a profession that was dominated by their male counterparts, but Dr. McBride’s decision to enter the medical field came at a horrible cost.

Lillian_Mcbride

Dr. J. Lillian Mcbride

Julia Lillian Wheeler was born in 1865 possibly in Montgomery County, Ohio, but very little is known of her life prior to her getting married.  On January 15, 1886 she married Dr. Franklin E. McBride in Montgomery County, Ohio.  Franklin was the son of Washington McBride, a prominent farmer in Richland County.  In Graham’s History of Richland County (1880) it reads, Washington “was born in Monroe Township April 1, 1840.  Was married, in 1860, to Mary A. Swann; they had four children — Franklin E., William S., Lilly A. [and] Laura E.; Mrs. McBride died Jan. 22, 1873; Mr. McBride married again, Dec. 17, 1874, to Mary A. Au, who was born in Pennsylvania; they have two children — Margaret E. [and] Maria M. Mr. McBride is an intelligent man, and is a member of the Congregationalist Church.”  The following years would bring 8 more children for a total of 10 from his second marriage.  Washington died on November 18, 1907 and is buried on Odd Fellows Cemetery in Lucas, Ohio.

marriage

Franklin E. McBride and J Lillian Wheeler Marriage Record

It’s unclear how long Julia, or J Lillian, as she is referred to in most texts, and Franklin stayed in Ohio, but sometime in 1888-1889 they set sail from San Francisco to China as part of the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions.   According to the Harvard Library Archives, “The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was founded in 1810; the first organized missionary society in the United States. By the time of its centenary in 1910, the Board was responsible for 102 mission stations and a missionary staff of 600 in India, Ceylon, West Central Africa (Angola), South Africa and Rhodesia, Asiatic and European Turkey, four different regions in China, Japan, Micronesia, the Philippines, and the ‘Papal lands’ of Mexico, Spain and Austria.”[1]

The McBride’s were part of the North China Mission in Kalgan, in an almanac for the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions in 1887 it gave a description, saying “The North China Mission lies within the provinces of Chihli and Shantung. One station, Kalgan is on the border of Mongolia.  The Mission has seven stations, twenty-nine out-stations, fourteen ordained missionaries, two male physicians, two female physicians, sixteen wives of missionaries and three other women.”[2]

Tragedy struck in 1890 when Franklin died of typhus fever.  In The Missionary Herald for 1890 is says, “On July 31, a Telegram was received at the Mission Rooms from Shanghai, announcing the death of Dr. McBride, of Kalgan, July 6, of typhus fever.  It is hardly a year since Dr. McBride and his young wife sailed from San Francisco for North China, full of ardent hope for a life-service in that empire.“[3]  This was also recorded in the Richland Shield and Banner on August 9, 1890, saying “Washington McBride received the sad intelligence today that his son, Dr. F.E. McBride, died in China on the 6th of typhus fever. He was medical missionary to China, having been sent there by the American Board of Foreign Missions about a year ago. He was 28 years of age and a most promising young man.” Franklin’s body was returned home and he is buried next to his brother who had died two years earlier.

It’s obvious the work done in China had made an impact on J Lillian McBride.  She made her way to Philadelphia and received her diploma from the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania Tuesday, May 8, 1894.  After this she immediately returned to Mansfield and started her practice.  In the 1895-96 Mansfield, Ohio directory, J Lillian McBride is listed as a physician located at 53 W. Fourth St.  In 1897-98 she moved to 34 West Fourth St., then to 181 South Diamond around 1904, and finally to 46 West Third Street in 1908-09.  She practiced there until around 1920 or 1921.  The last mention of her in the local paper was April 21, 1921, saying she was moving to West Carrolton in Montgomery County, Ohio.

JLMAd

Advertisement in the 1908-09 Mansfield City Directory

In addition to being one of the first female physicians in the area, Dr. McBride was also an elected official in many of the medical organizations in the county, including secretary and treasurer of the North East Ohio Medical Society.  She was also the first woman to serve on the Mansfield Board of Education from 1911-1915.

For now, it’s unknown what happened to Dr. McBride after she left Mansfield, Ohio.  A family tree on Ancesty.com has her death listed as November 12, 1951, but no sources to verify this information.  Some further research through records in Montgomery County may turn up even more achievements for this woman, who was a pioneer in her field and, based on the other offices she held and boards she served on, a respected citizen of Richland County.

[1] http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~hou01467
[2] https://books.google.com/books?id=iocsAAAAYAAJ&dq=j+lillian+mcbride&source=gbs_navlinks_s
[3] https://books.google.com/books?id=JssWAQAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false